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1976
Havlin S., Litov E., Sompolinsky H..  1976.  Unified Model for the Transverse Electric Susceptibility in KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 Type Crystals. Physical Review B 14, 1297..
Hillman, P, Hochstein S, Minke B.  1976.  Nonlocal interactions in the photoreceptor transduction process. The Journal of General Physiology. 68:227–245. Abstract
We have recently demonstated the dissection of the transduction process in the barnacle photoreceptor into antagonistic "excitor" and "inhibitor" processes. We now show that (a) the interaction between the two processes proceeds even when they are induced in different pigment molecules; (b) the excitor process appears to be slightly facilitated if those pigment molecular unaffected by the stimulus are in the stable metarhodopsin state or slightly inhibited if they are in the rhodopsin state; (c) there is a facilitatory interaction among the excitor processes induced in different pigment molecules. In case a, the interaction has a range of at least a few hundred angstroms, taking place in a time of less than a fraction of a second; in cases b and c, the range could be as little as "nearest neighbors" and the time as much as a few seconds. All these interactions could be intermediated by the "excitor" if it is a transmitter.
Hochstein, S, Shapley RM.  1976.  Quantitative analysis of retinal ganglion cell classifications. The Journal of Physiology. 262:237–264. Abstract
The classification of cat retinal ganglion cells as X or Y on the basis of linearity or nonlinearity of spatial summation has been confirmed and extended. Recordings were taken from optic tract fibres of anaesthetized, paralysed cats. 2. When an alternating phase sine wave grating was used as a stimulus, X cells had null positions and Y cells responded at all positions of the grating. 3. These results did not depend on the temporal wave form or the temporal frequency of pattern alternation over a wide range. 4. At high spatial frequencies for the particular cell, a Y cell gave abig 'on-off' response, or frequency doubling, at all positions of the grating, while an X cell did not. 5. The use of contrast sensitivity versus spatial phase also served to differentiate the two cell types. With an alternating sine grating stimulus X cells had a sinusoidal dependence on spatial phase, while each Y cell's sensitivity depended in a complicated manner on spatial phase. 6. Sensitivity versus spatial phase for different Fourier components of the neural response also separated the two classes of cells. Significant second harmonic distortion was present in Y cells. The second harmonic component was spatial phase insensitive, and became dominant at high spatial frequencies. 7. The maximum of the 2nd/1st harmonic ratio was taken as an index of nonlinearity. X cells always had a nonlinearity index less than 1 while in Y cells this index always exceeded 1. 8. Response to spots, diffuse light and drifting gratings were compared to the nonlinearity index as a basis for classifying cells. The nonlinearity index was most reliable because it was least dependent on retinal eccentricity.
1975
Huez, G, Marbaix G, Hubert E, Cleuter Y, Leclercq M, Chantrenne H, Devos R, Soreq H, Nudel U, Littauer UZ.  1975.  Readenylation of polyadenylate-free globin messenger RNA restores its stability in vivo. Eur J Biochem. 59:589-92. Abstract
Using an ATP:RNA adenyltransferase from Escherichia coli, a polyadenylic sequence was resynthesized onto rabbit globin mRNA from which the poly (A) segment had been previously removed. Conditions for obtaining a homogenous reconstituted globin mRNA preparation containing 30 adenylic residues per message molecule were determined. The reconstituted globin mRNA was microinjected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Its stability was very similar to that of native mRNA.
Salomon, R, Soreq H, Givon D, Sela I, Littauer UZ.  1975.  Proceedings: Enzymatic acylation of histidine to tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Isr J Med Sci. 11:1208-9.
Soreq, H, Nudel U, Salomon R, Lebleu B, Revel M, Littauer UZ, Huez G, Marbaix G, Hubert E, Leclerck M.  1975.  Proceedings: Role of the polyadenylic segment in the translation of globin messenger RNA. Isr J Med Sci. 11:1202-3.
Huez, G, Marbaix G, Hubert E, Cleuter Y, Leclercq M, Chantrenne H, Devos R, Soreq H, Salomon R, Nudel U et al..  1975.  Proceedings: The polyadenylic segment of globin messenger RNA ensures its stability in vivo. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 83:370-1.
Marbaix, G, Huez G, Burny A, Cleuter Y, Hubert E, Leclercq M, Chantrenne H, Soreq H, Nudel U, Salomon R et al..  1975.  [Proceedings: Accelerated degradation of globin messenger RNA after removal of polyadenylic segment in Xenopus oocytes]. Arch Int Physiol Biochim. 83:385-6.
Shapley, R, Hochstein S.  1975.  Visual spatial summation in two classes of geniculate cells. Nature. 256:411–413.
Marbaix, G, Huez G, Burny A, Cleuter Y, Hubert E, Leclercq M, Chantrenne H, Soreq H, Nudel U, Littauer UZ.  1975.  Absence of polyadenylate segment in globin messenger RNA accelerates its degradation in Xenopus oocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 72:3065-7. Abstract
Rabbit globin poly(A)-free and native mRNA preparations were microinjected into Xenopus oocytes. The amount of globin message remaining after incubation of injected oocytes was determined by molecular hybridization with a radioactive complementary DNA probe, synthesized by copying globin mRNA with purified RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) from avian myeloblastosis virus. The results show that 56 hr after injection about 85% of the poly(A)-free mRNA molecules are degraded, while native poly(A)-containing mRNA chains are almost completely preserved during the same period of time.
Minke, B, Wu C, Pak WL.  1975.  Induction of photoreceptor voltage noise in the dark in Drosophila mutant. Nature. 258:84-87.
Minke, B, Wu C-F, Pak WL.  1975.  Isolation of light-induce response of the central retinular cells from the electroretinogram of Drosophila. 98:345-355.
Havlin S., Litov E., Sompolinsky H..  1975.  The Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Protonic E- Mode in KDP-Type Crystals. Physicsl Letters A 53, 41..
Havlin S., Litov E., Sompolinsky H..  1975.  The Transverse Dielectric Properties of KH2PO4. Physicsl Letters A 51, 33..
1974
Soreq, H, Nudel U, Salomon R, Revel M, Littauer UZ.  1974.  In vitro translation of polyadenylic acid-free rabbit globin messenger RNA. J Mol Biol. 88:233-45.
Huez, G, Marbaix G, Hubert E, Leclercq M, Nudel U, Soreq H, Salomon R, Lebleu B, Revel M, Littauer UZ.  1974.  Proceedings: Role of the polyadenylic segment in the translation of globin messenger RNA. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 355:1211.
Minke, B, Hochstein S, Hillman P.  1974.  Derivation of a quantitative kinetic model for a visual pigment from observations of early receptor potential. Biophysical Journal. 14:490–512. Abstract
A "complete" and quantitative kinetic model for the states and transitions of the barnacle visual pigment in situ has been constructed from intracellular recordings of the early receptor potential responses to long light pulses. The model involves two stable and four thermolabile states and 10 photochemical, thermal, and metabolic transitions among them. The existence of each state and transition is demonstrated by qualitative examination of the response resulting from a carefully chosen experimental paradigm (combination of intensity, duration, and wavelength of adaptation and stimulation). Quantitative examination of the same responses determines all of the model transition rates, but only puts constraints on the state dipole moments. The latter are determined, and the former refined, by quantitative comparison of the predictions of the complete model with the responses to a set of paradigms chosen to involve as many states and transitions as possible. The fact that good fits can be obtained to these responses without further modification of the model supports its completeness.
Huez, G, Marbaix G, Hubert E, Leclercq M, Nudel U, Soreq H, Salomon R, Lebleu B, Revel M, Littauer UZ.  1974.  Role of the polyadenylate segment in the translation of globin messenger RNA in Xenopus oocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 71:3143-6. Abstract
The translations of native messenger RNA for rabbit globin and that of poly(A)-free globin messenger RNA have been compared after injection into Xenopus oocytes. The initial rate of translation of poly(A)-free mRNA is close to that found with intact mRNA. However, at longer incubation periods, the rate of globin synthesis with poly(A)-free mRNA is considerably lower than with native mRNA. Similar differences in the template activity of the two mRNA preparations were found with a cell-free extract of Krebs II ascites tumor. It is concluded that the presence of the 3' poly(A)-rich sequence in mRNA is required to ensure high functional stability.
Minke, B, Hochstein S, Hillman P.  1974.  Derivation of a quantitative kinetic model for a visual pigment from observations of early receptor potential. 14(6):490-512.
1973
Hochstein, S, Minke B, Hillman P.  1973.  Antagonistic components of the late receptor potential in the barnacle photoreceptor arising from different stages of the pigment process. The Journal of General Physiology. 62:105–128. Abstract
The late receptor potential {(LRP)} recorded in barnacle photoreceptor cells exhibits, at high light levels, a strong dependence on the color of the stimulus and of the preceding adaptation. Most strikingly, red illumination of a cell previously adapted to blue light results in a depolarization which may last for up to 30 min after the light goes off, while blue illumination of a cell previously adapted to red light cuts short this extended depolarization or prevents its induction by a closely following red light. Comparison of the action spectra for the stimulus-coincident {LRP} and for the extended depolarization and its curtailment with those previously measured for the early receptor potential {(ERP)} confirms that these phenomena derive from the same bi-stable pigment as the {ERP.} The stimulus-coincident response and the extended depolarization appear to arise from substantial activation of the stable 532 nm state of the pigment, while activation of the stable 495 state depresses or prevents the extended depolarization and probably also depresses the stimulus-coincident response. Since either process can precede the other, with mutually antagonistic effects, one is not simply the reversal of the other; they must be based on separate mechanisms. Furthermore, comparison with {ERP} kinetics shows that both processes involve mechanisms additional to the pigment changes, as seen in the {ERP.} A model is proposed and discussed for the {LRP} phenomena and their dependences on wavelength, intensity, and duration of illumination based on excitor-inhibitor interactions.
Minke, B, Hochstein S, Hillman P.  1973.  Early receptor potential evidence for the existence of two thermally stable states in the barnacle visual pigment. The Journal of General Physiology. 62:87–104. Abstract
The early receptor potential {(ERP)} in the barnacle photoreceptor is shown by intracellular recording to exhibit a strong dependence on the color of the stimulus and of the preceding adaptation. The adaptation effects appear to be stable for at least 3 h in the dark. Most strikingly, the {ERP} is positive after red adaptation and mainly negative after blue adaptation. The simplest hypothesis which accounts for these observations is that two thermally stable pigment states with different absorption spectra contribute to the {ERP.} All {ERP} responses appear to be consistent with the sums of different ratios of the {ERP's} of the two pure states. The relative populations of the two states are shown to vary reciprocally, suggesting that the two are states of the same closed pigment cycle. Both states have approximately Dartnall nomogram-shaped absorption spectra, one peaked near 495 nm, and the other near 532 nm.
Hillman, P, Dodge FA, Hochstein S, Knight BW, Minke B.  1973.  Rapid dark recovery of the invertebrate early receptor potential. The Journal of General Physiology. 62:77–86. Abstract
The recovery in the dark of the early receptor potential, as a direct manifestation of the state of the visual pigments, has been studied by intracellular recording in the ventral photoreceptors of Limulus and lateral photoreceptors of Balanus. The recovery is exponential with 1/e time constants of about 80 ms at 24 degrees C for both preparations and 1800 ms at 4 degrees C for Balanus. The 24 degrees C rate extrapolates to total recovery of the pigment within 2 s. The later part of the dark adaptation of the late receptor potential, which may take from seconds to minutes in these preparations, appears thus to be unrelated to the state of the pigment.
Minke, B, Hochstein S, Hillman P.  1973.  Letter: Antagonistic process as source of visible-light suppression of afterpotential in Limulus {UV} photoreceptors. The Journal of General Physiology. 62:787–791.
Hochstein, S, Minke B, Hillman P.  1973.  Antagonistic components of the late receptor potential in the barnacle photoreceptor arising from different stages of the pigment process. 62(1):105-128.
Minke, B, Hochstein S, Hillman P.  1973.  Early receptor potential evidence for the existence of two thermally stable states in the barnacle visual pigment. 62(1):87-104.