Open channel block (OCB) is a process by which ions bind to the inside of a channel pore and block the flow of ions through that channel. Repulsion of the blocking ions by membrane depolarization is a known mechanism for open channel block removal. For the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel, this mechanism is necessary for channel activation and is involved in neuronal plasticity. Several types of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels, including the Drosophila TRP and TRP-Like (TRPL) channels, also exhibit open channel block. For the Drosophila TRP and TRPL channels, removal of open channel block is necessary for the production of the physiological response to light. Recently, we have shown that lipids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), represented by linoleic acid (LA), alleviate OCB under physiological conditions, from the Drosophila TRP and TRPL channels and from the mammalian NMDA channel. Here we show that OCB removal by LA is not confined to the Drosophila TRPs but also applies to mammalian TRPs such as the heat activated TRPV3 channel. TRPV3 shows OCB alleviation by LA, although it shares little amino acid sequence homology with the Drosophila TRPs. Strikingly, LA inhibits the heat-activated TRPV1 and the cold temperature-activated TRPM8 channels, which are intrinsic voltage sensitive channels and do not show OCB. Together, our findings further support the notion that lipids do not act as second messengers by direct binding to a specific site of the channels but rather act indirectly by affecting the channel-plasma membrane interface.
Linoleic acid inhibits TRP channels with intrinsic voltage sensitivity: Implications on the mechanism of linoleic acid action
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