Long bone panoramas from fluoroscopic X-ray images

This paper presents a new method for creating a single panoramic image of a long bone from several individual fluoroscopic X-ray images. Panoramic images are useful preoperatively for diagnosis, and intraoperatively for long bone fragment alignment, for making anatomical measurements, and for documenting surgical outcomes. Our method composes individual overlapping images into an undistorted panoramic view that is the equivalent of a single X-ray image with a wide field of view. The correlations between the images are established from the graduations of a radiolucent ruler imaged alongside the long bone. Unlike existing methods, ours uses readily available hardware, requires a simple image acquisition protocol with minimal user input, and works with existing fluoroscopic C-arm units without modifications. It is robust and accurate, producing panoramas whose quality and spatial resolution is comparable to that of the individual images. The method has been successfully tested on in vitro and clinical cases.

Authors: Z. Yaniv and L. Joskowicz
Year of publication: 2004
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 26 - 35

Link to publication:


“Working memory”