The nature and origin of the temporal irregularity in the electrical activity of cortical neurons in vivo are not well understood. We consider the hypothesis that this irregularity is due to a balance of excitatory and inhibitory currents into the cortical cells. We study a network model with excitatory and inhibitory populations of simple binary units. The internal feedback is mediated by relatively large synaptic strengths, so that the magnitude of the total excitatory and inhibitory feedback is much larger than the neuronal threshold. The connectivity is random and sparse. The mean number of connections per unit is large, though small compared to the total number of cells in the network. The network also receives a large, temporally regular input from external sources. We present an analytical solution of the mean-field theory of this model, which is exact in the limit of large network size. This theory reveals a new cooperative stationary state of large networks, which we term a balanced state. In this state, a balance between the excitatory and inhibitory inputs emerges dynamically for a wide range of parameters, resulting in a net input whose temporal fluctuations are of the same order as its mean. The internal synaptic inputs act as a strong negative feedback, which linearizes the population responses to the external drive despite the strong nonlinearity of the individual cells. This feedback also greatly stabilizes the system’s state and enables it to track a time-dependent input on time scales much shorter than the time constant of a single cell. The spatiotemporal statistics of the balanced state are calculated. It is shown that the autocorrelations decay on a short time scale, yielding an approximate Poissonian temporal statistics. The activity levels of single cells are broadly distributed, and their distribution exhibits a skewed shape with a long power-law tail. The chaotic nature of the balanced state is revealed by showing that the evolution of the microscopic state of the network is extremely sensitive to small deviations in its initial conditions. The balanced state generated by the sparse, strong connections is an asynchronous chaotic state. It is accompanied by weak spatial cross-correlations, the strength of which vanishes in the limit of large network size. This is in contrast to the synchronized chaotic states exhibited by more conventional network models with high connectivity of weak synapses.
Chaotic balanced state in a model of cortical circuits
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